DESAIN PROTOTYPE GASIFIER BIOMASS PORTABLE UNTUK MELISTRIKI DAERAH 3T

eko supriyanto

Abstract


Portable biomass gasifier merupakan Pusat Listrik Tenaga (PLT) Biomassa yang didesain dengan tujuan mudah dipindahkan untuk menjangkau daerah 3T (terluar, tertinggal dan terpencil). Komponen utama dari PLT Biomassa ini antara lain: reaktor, siklon, gas cooler, filter dan genset, sedangkan komponen pendukung antara lain: trailer, blower, water pump, thermocouple dan flare. Berdasarkan perhitungan beban maksimum dari gasifier ini sebesar 16.88 kW. Dengan bahan baku biomassa tempurung kelapa, pada beban 5 kW gasifier ini membutuhan biomassa dan udara sebesar 16 kg dan 8.44 m3 dan dapat beroperasi selama 11.12 jam. Konstruksi mobile biomass gasifier dipasang diatas trailer bertujuan untuk mempermudah pindah tempat sehingga mudah menjangkau daerah 3T. Penggunaan gas cooler tipe shell & tube counter flow mencegah terjadinya pencampuran kondensasi tar dengan media pendingin. Hal ini menjadikan gasifier ini mudah dalam penanganan tar sehingga aman terhadap lingkungan. Disamping itu pencampuran uap dari media pendingin dengan gas produk yang dapat dihindari sehingga kualitas gas produk dan efisiensi gasifier cenderung lebih baik. Berdasarkan perhitungan pada beban 5, 6 dan 7 kW, suhu gas produk setelah melewati gas cooler berkisar 54.88 sampai 55.10 °C. Pada suhu tersebut sangat mungkin terjadi kondensasi tar dan uap air hasil pembakaran yang menjadikan zat tersebut terpisah dari gas produk gasifikasi, seperti diketahui bahwa tar dan uap air merupakan zat pengotor dalam produk gasifikasi, sehingga dengan berkurangnya tar dan uap air dalam gas produk gasifikasi akan meningkatkan nilai kalor gas produk dan efisiensi gasifikasi.


Keywords


biomas gasifier portable, updraft, daerah 3T

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30588/jo.v5i2.933

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