Dampak Eksploitasi Minyak Dan Gas Bumi Pada Degradasi Biota Perairan Dan Penurunan Kualitas Air Permukaan

Ai Siti Fatimah, Suratman .

Abstract


Kegiatan penambangan minyak dan gas bumi di Tuban Jawa Timur, menghasilkan limbah padat dan cair (air terproduksi) memberikan dampak pada lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1) menganalisis kondisi kualitas air  permukaan di Sukowati, Mudi dan CPA (Central Processing Area); dan (2) menganalisis Parameter biota perairan jenis dan indeks keanekaragaman biota di perairan yang ada di sekitar lokasi. Metode pengumpulan data air sungai dan air drainase, menggunakan pengukuran langsung di lapangan (in-situ). Pengarnbilan sampling menggunakan cara grab sampling. Data hasil analisa laboratorium selanjutnya dilakukan dibandingkan dengan baku mutu sesuai Peraturan Gubernur Jatim No. 72 Tahun 2013 Tentang Baku Mutu Air Limbah Bagi Industri dan/atau Kegiatan Usaha Lainnya. Parameter biota perairan pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan pengambilan contoh plankton dan bentos dìsungai, contoh plankton kemudian dianalisis di laboratorium. Data hasil analisis contoh air laut di laboratorium kernudian dibandingkan dengan tolok ukur yaitu indeks keanekaragaman (H’) Shannon dan Wiener. Hasil perbandingan diuraikan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa air permukaan menimbulkan dampak yang meyebabkan penurunan kualitas air permukaan di area plan Sukowati, Mudi, Lengowangi, dan CPA. Biota perairan di Sukowati hasil analisis menunjukan indeks diversity antara 0,9039 - 2,9728. Beberapa lokasi menunjukan hasil indeks diversity berada di antara nilai 0 – 2, dimana menunjukan adanya tekanan terhadap lingkungan. Hal ini karena adanya perubahan suhu musiman yang menyebabkan biota perarian kembali pada kondisi awal pada saat kajian Initial Enviromnetal Examination (IEE). Penanggulangan dilakukan untuk meminimalisir terjadinya pencemaran air permukaan di lokasi minyak dan gas bumi Tuban Jawa Timur. Mengatasi penurunan air permukaan dengan konservasi ekosistem air permukaan di area plan Sukowati, Mudi, Lengowangi dan CPA secara teknis dan ekologi. Merupakan upaya dalam memperbaiki daerah aliran sungai dan daerah sekitarnya agar dapat dimanfaatkan serta menjadi produktif.

Kata Kunci : sungai, air terproduksi, biota perairan, drainase, plankton

Oil and gas mining activities in Tuban, East Java, produce solid and liquid waste (produced water) that has an impact on the environtment. This research has in view to: (1) investigate the surface water quality in Sukowati, Mudi and CPA (Central Processing Area); and (2) investigate the parameters of aquatic species biota and the biota diversity index in the waters around the location. Methods for collecting river water and air drainage data are using in-situ direct measurements around the location. The sampling method investigated in the study is grab sampling method. Laboratory analysis data will be compared with quality standard in accordance with East Java Governor's Regulation No. 72 of 2013 concerning Wastewater Quality Standards for Industry and / or Other Business Activities. Data collection for the parameters of aquatic biota is done by taking plankton and benthic samples in the river, then plankton samples are investigated in the laboratory. The result of the analysis of seawater samples in the laboratory are then compared with the benchmarks namely Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H’). The results of the comparison are described descriptively. The result showed that surface water had an impact which caused a decrease in surface water quality in the plant area Sukowati, Mudi, Lengowangi and CPA. The result of aquatic biota analysis in Sukowati showed diversity index between 0.9039 - 2.9728. Several locations showed  diversity index result between 0 – 2,which indicates a pressure on the environment. This is caused by changes in temperature which causes aquatic biota to return to the initial conditions at the time of the Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) assessment. Improvement effort must be made on the watershed and surrounding areas so that they can be cultivated and become productive land, such as: Countermeasures must be taken to decrease surface water pollution at the Tuban East Java oil and gas area, and also overcoming surface water subsidence by technically and ecologically conserving surface water ecosystems in the Sukowati, Mudi, Lengowangi and CPA plant areas.

Keyword : river, produced water, aquatic species biota, drainase, plankton


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30588/jo.v4i1.732

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Copyright (c) 2020 Ai Siti Fatimah, Suratman .

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Jurnal Offshore: Oil, Production Facilities and Renewable Energy  
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